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Chapter 4

CURRICULUM

4.1 PHASES, SUBJECTS AND SUBJECT CHOICES (GENERAL)

4.1.1Legislative and Policy Framework

ACTS

  • National Education Policy Act 27 of 1996 [NEPA]
  • South African Schools Act 84 of 1996 (SASA 2B-12 to 17) [SASA]            

 

REGULATIONS

  • Approval for the Amendments to the Regulations Pertaining to the National Curriculum Statement Grades R-12 to provide for the listing of French Second Additional Language (GN 40898(no.539), 9 June 2017 [NR 40898-539/2017]  
  • Determination of minimum outcomes and standards and a national process and procedures for the assessment of learner achievement as stipulated in the policy document, national policy pertaining to the programme and promotion requirements of the national curriculum statement grades R-12 (GN 40898(no.540), 9 June 2017) [NR 40898-540/2017]

 

POLICIES

  • Curriculum and Assessment Policy Statements for the respective subjects (Government Gazette No. 34600 of 12 September 2011) [CAPS]
  • National Policy Pertaining to the Programme and Promotion Requirements of the National Curriculum Statement Grades R-12 (Government Gazette No. 34600 of 12 September 2011 as amended by Government Notices No.1496 and 1497 in Government Gazette, No. 40472 dated 2 December 2016) [NPPPR]
  • National Protocol for Assessment Grades R-12 (Government Gazette No. 34600 of 12 September 2011) and amended as Government Notice No. 1115 and 1116, Government Gazette No. 36042 of 28 December 2012 [NPA]
  • Language in Education Policy 14 July 1997 [NP LANGUAGE]

CIRCULARS

  • Circular 13 of 2017: Repeal of the proviso restricting accounting to learners offering mathematics only [13/2017]
  • Circular S11 of 2017: The splitting of the business studies examination question paper from one paper into two papers for Gr 10-12 [S11/2017]
  • Circular S12 of 2017: The splitting og the accounting paper from one paper to two papers and the provision of a formula sheet for Gr 10-12 [S12/2017]
  • Circular S3 of 2018: Clarification on implementation of the Repeal of the Accounting proviso [S3/2018]
  • Circular S3 of 2019: Grade 11 Accounting and Business Studies Examination Guidelines [S3/2019]

FreeState

GUIDELINES

  • SA-SAMS Manual – 10 steps on how to update subjects offered by school and assigned to learners [Reference B2 FS SASAMS 10]

Limpopo

POLICIES

  • Limpopo Career Guidance Policy [Reference B5 LIM CAREER]

 

CIRCULARS

  • Circular No 205 Of 2012  Establishment Of New Schools And Management Of Streams In Schools [Reference B5 205/2012]

WesternCape

GUIDELINES

  • WCED Institutional Management and Governance Planning Minute 0002/2012 – School Enrichment Programme Guidelines [Reference B9 0002/2012]

4.1.2Framework for the Development of School Policy on the Curriculum (General)

National Curriculum Statement (NCS) for Grades R-12: Phases and subjects as listed in the National Policy Pertaining to the Programme and Promotion Requirements (See NPPPR)

Take note of the addition of French as a second additional language. The Curriculum and Assessment Policy (CAPS) documents for French are available on the following Departmental websites: www.education.gov.za, Resources Curriculum, Curriculum and Assessment Policy Statement (CAPS).

  • The curriculum is structured in terms of four phases and 13 Grades:
– Foundation Phase Grades R – 3
– Intermediate Phase Grades 4 – 6
– Senior Phase Grades 7 – 9
– Further Education and Training Phase Grades 10 – 12
  • Subjects form the basic components of the curriculum for all the phases.
  • The subjects can be grouped into eight learning areas: Languages, Mathematics, Life Orientation, Arts & Culture, Natural Sciences, Technology, Social Sciences, Economic and Management Sciences (although not used in an explicit way in the policy documents anymore, the learning areas still reflect the underpinning structure of the NCS which is useful).
  • Languages, Mathematics, Mathematical Literacy and Life Orientation are referred to as the Fundamentals.
  1. School types in terms of the curriculum
    SASA in Section 12(3)(a) makes provision for three types of public school:

    • Ordinary public schools
    • Public schools for learners with special education needs
    • Public schools that provide education with a specialised focus on talent, including sport, performing arts or creative arts. A public school distinguishes itself as a focus school (third school type above) by means of its curriculum, e.g. a technology school (focusing on technological skills), and an agricultural school.
  2. Subject choices
    • A learner can from Gr 4 onwards take both language subjects at Home Language Level
    • Schools are encouraged to offer three languages in the Intermediate and Senior Phases. However, policy does not allocate time to a third language and schools therefore have to add the time used for such an additional subject to the prescribed teaching time (27.5 hours per week).
    • There are no subject choices up to the completion of the Senior Phase except for the level at which the second official language is offered from Gr 4 up to Gr 9.
    • The SASA as amended by the Basic Education Laws Amendment Act No 15 of 2011 determines in Section 6B as follows:
      “6B. The governing body of a public school must ensure that –

      • there is no unfair discrimination in respect of any official languages that are offered as subject options contemplated in section 21(1)(b); and
      • the first additional language and any other official language offered, as provided for in the curriculum, are offered on the same level.”
        (Please see Chapter 9.1 for the implications of this section).
    • In the FET Phase, a learner with the exception of an immigrant learner or learner with barriers to learning, must offer seven subjects:
      • An official Language at Home Language Level
      • An official Language at least 1st Additional Language Level
      • Mathematics or Mathematical Literacy
      • Life Orientation
      • Three of the other subjects with the following provisos:
        • Not more than one language from the same group (isiXhosa, isiZulu, SiSwati and isiNdebele form one group and Sepedi, Sesotho and Setswana the other)
        • The same language may not be offered at more than one level
        • Mathematics and Mathematical Literacy may not be offered together
        • Consumer Studies and Hospitality Studies may not be offered together
        • Learners offering Sport and Exercise Science as a subject must offer either Physical Sciences or Life Sciences
        • Learners offering Physical Sciences as one of their optional subjects; must offer Mathematics as a compulsory subject (this will probably be phased in from grade 10 in 2017)
        • Learners offering Accounting as one of their optional subjects may offer either Mathematics or Mathematical Literacy in grade 10 as from 2018 (DBE Circular 13 of 2017)
        • One subject developed and assessed by an accredited body may be offered as one of the three subjects. These subjects are listed in Annexure C of the National Policy Pertaining to the Promotion and Progression Requirements (NPPR). One of the three optional subjects can be replaced with a subject from another assessment body as listed in Annexure C of If this subject is one of the Practical Music Subjects of one of the Music examination bodies it may only be offered as an eighth subject which cannot count as one of the seven subjects for promotion purposes.
        • A learner may offer more than the required 7 subjects on condition that the additional subject(s) is (are) offered for all three years (Gr 10-12) and all the internal assessment requirements for the subject(s) are met.
    • Learners entering the FET Phase must follow one of the following two pathways, namely an Academic (General) or Technical pathway.
    • For the Technical pathway a learner must offer Mathematics or Technical Mathematics(aa) one of the following three technology subjects (specialisation)-
      (aaa) Civil Technology (Specialisation)
      (bbb) Electrical Technology (Specialisation)
      (ccc) Mechanical Technology (Specialisation)
      (bb) Engineering Graphics and Design; and
      (cc) Physical Sciences or Technical Science.
    • A candidate from the Academic (General) pathway may not offer Technical Mathematics
    • A candidate from the Academic (General) pathway may not offer Technical Science
    • A candidate from the Academic (General) pathway may not offer any one of the following three technology subjects (Specialisation) –
      (a) Civil Technology (Specialisation)
      (b) Electrical Technology (Specialisation)
      (c) Mechanical Technology (Specialisation)
    • A candidate from the Technical pathway may not offer Mathematical Literacy
    • A candidate from the Technical pathway may not offer both Mathematics and Technical Mathematics
  3. Changing subjects in Grades 10-12
    Policy determines as follows:

    • A learner may change a maximum of two subjects in Gr 10, subject to approval of the Principal of the school where the learner is registered. Such change must be done before 30 June of the Grade 10 year.
    • A learner may change two subjects in Gr 11, provided this is done before 31 March, subject to the approval of the Principal of the school where the learner is registered.
    • In exceptional cases a learner may change one additional subject in Grade 11, provided this is done before 15 December of the Grade 11-year.
    • Approval for changing a subject in Gr 12 must be obtained from the Head of the Assessment Body (provincial education department). The following must be furnished:
      • A letter of motivation from the learner’s parent or guardian;
      • A letter from the Principal, either supportive or not supportive, with reasons;
      • A letter from the subject teacher, outlining the programme to be followed to assist the learner in covering those aspects of the curriculum statements for the previous grade that were not covered.
      • A learner who changes a subject in Grades 10, 11 or 12 will be exempted from the School-Based Assessment requirements of the subject he or she wants to change for the period before the change was effected, provided that:
      • He or she has complied with all the School-Based Assessment requirements of the subject for the period before the change is to be effected; and
      • He or she complies with all the remaining School-Based Assessment requirements of the new subject from the date the change was effected.
    • The learner, or the parent or guardian of the learner who changes a subject is in Grades 10, 11 or 12 and who encounters learning difficulties due to the subject change may not hold the provincial department responsible for changing a subject.

4.1.3Guidelines for the Development of School Policy on the Curriculum in Terms of the Framework in 4.1.2

  1. Description of the school’s curriculum
    The policy of a school should include a description of the school’s curriculum. This applies to a primary school as well, in spite of the fact that the National Curriculum Statement is the same for all primary schools (same subjects, etc.). The description should include the following:

    • The main aims pursued by the school, in line with the school’s vision and mission statements, e.g. to enable all learners to realise their maximum potential.
    • The subjects in the respective phases in terms of the NCS
    • The reason why certain languages feature as subjects and others not and why at the specific levels.
    • Activities and subjects that are not prescribed by national policy must be pointed out and the reasons for their inclusion explained.
    • In the case of high schools, the elective subjects must be listed, with an explanation for the selection of subjects (why only certain subjects are offered and not the others). Reference could be made to the needs of the community, the curriculums of neighbouring schools, university admission requirements and labour market requirements.
    • A school should categorise itself on the basis of its curriculum
      • General
      • Comprehensive
      • Focus (technical, agricultural, art & music)
      • Specialised (hearing impaired, mildly intellectually handicapped, etc)
  2. Rules concerning subject choices for Gr 10 – 12
    These could include:

    • Performance in the relevant learning area in Gr 9, e.g. Mathematics versus Mathematical Literacy
    • Subjects that are not allowed to be taken together
  3. Rules concerning the changing of subjects in Gr 10 – 12
    The guidelines as stated in the National Policy Pertaining to the Programme and Promotion Requirements must be re-formulated to read as school policy with procedures and deadline dates clearly stated.

4.1.4Number of papers per subject as amended

  • Accounting grade 10 will have two papers phased in from 2018. (DBE Circular 12: S12/2017)
    Paper 1 Consists of Recording, Reporting, Corporate Governance, Interpretation of Financial Information (Financial Accounting integrated with Managing resources)
    Paper 2 Consists of Manufacturing, Budgeting/Forecasting & Internal Auditing and Control (Managerial Accounting integrated with Managing resources)
  • Grade 11 Accounting Examination Guidelines (Gr11 ACC)
  • Business Studies grade 10 will have two papers phased in from 2018. (DBE Circular 11: S11/2017)
    Paper 1 Consists of Business Environments and Business Operations
    Paper 2 Consists of Business Ventures and Business Roles
  • Grade 11 Business Studies Examination Guidelines (Gr11 Buss)

4.2 FORMAL SCHOOL DAY, INSTRUCTIONAL TIME AND TIME ALLOCATION PER SUBJECT

4.2.1Legislative and Policy Framework

ACTS

  • National Education Policy Act 27 of 1996 [NEPA] Section 3(4)(j)
    (See 4.2.1(b))
  • South African Schools Act 84 of 1996 [SASA]
  • Employment of Educators Act 76 of 1998 [EEA]

 

POLICIES

  • Curriculum and Assessment Policy Statements for the respective subjects (Government Gazette No. 34600 of 12 September 2011) [CAPS]
  • National Policy pertaining to the Programme and Promotion Requirements of the National Curriculum Statement Grades R-12 (Government Gazette No. 34600 of 12 September 2011 as amended by Government Notices No.1496 and 1497 in Government Gazette, No. 40472 dated 2 December 2016)  [NPPPR]
  • National Protocol for Assessment Grades R-12 (Government Gazette No. 34600 of 12 September 2011) and amended as Government Notice No. 1115 and 1116, Government Gazette No. 36042 of 28 December 2012 [NPA]

 

GUIDELINES

  • Personnel Administration Measures [PAM] Chapter A 4.3.3

WesternCape

GUIDELINES

  • WCED Circular 0044/2012 – Regulations relating to the minimum Teaching Hours per School Week and School Day in Public Schools in the Western Cape [Reference B9 0044/2012 ]
  • WCED Institutional Development and Co-ordination Minutes 0001/2015: School Attendance by Grades 4 to 11 learners during and after the 2015 June and December Examinations [Reference B9 0001/2015]

4.2.2Framework for the Development of School Policy on Timetable Matters

  1. Instructional teaching time (Contact Time)
    The instructional teaching time is the total prescribed time to be spent per week on teaching the prescribed curriculum. The instructional teaching time therefore excludes time used for breaks, assembly, register periods and the teaching of any contents not prescribed by the curriculum, e.g. Bible or religious instruction (religious studies forms part of the prescribed curriculum for Life Orientation).
    NOTE: Party-political activities are not allowed during the formal school day. Such activities include campaigning, conducting of rallies, distribution of pamphlets and fliers, hanging or putting up of posters and banners. A member of a political party may not during the formal school day conduct party-political activities at a school. The display of party-political material is not allowed on school premises unless such material relates to the school’s curriculum (SA Schools Act Section 33A).

    Table 4.2.1
    Phase Grades Time
    Hours Minutes
    Foundation Phase R, 1 and 2 23
    Gr 3 25
    Intermediate Phase Gr 4, 5 and 6 27 30
    Senior Phase Gr 7, 8 and 9 27 30
    FET Phase Gr 10, 11 and 12 27 30
  2. Time allocation per subject
    Table 4.2.2
    Foundation Phase
    Subject Hours per week
    Grade R Grade 1 – 2 Grade 3
    Lang 1: Home Language Level 10 7/8 7/8
    Lang 2: First  Additional Lang Level 2/3 3/4
    Mathematics 7 7 7
    Life Skills 6 6 7
      Beginning Knowledge (1) (1) (2)
      Creative Arts (2) (2) (2)
      Physical Education (2) (2) (2)
      Personal and Social Well-being (1) (1) (1)
    TOTAL 23 23 25
    Table 4.2.3
    Intermediate Phase
    Subject Hours per week
    Home Language 6
    First  Additional Language 5
    Mathematics 6
    Social Sciences 3
    Natural Sciences and Technology 3.5
    Life Skills 4
    TOTAL 27.5
    Table 4.2.4
    Senior Phase
    Learning Area % of Instructional timein
    Table 4.2.1
    Time per week
    (hours & minutes)
    Gr 7-9
    Languages 25 6 hrs 52 min
    Mathematics 18 4 hrs 57 min
    Natural Sciences 13 3 hrs 35 min
    Social Sciences 12 3 hrs 18 min
    Technology 8 2 hrs 12 min
    Economic and Management Sciences 8 2 hrs 12 min
    Life Orientation 8 2 hrs 12 min
    Arts & Culture 8 2 hrs 12 min
    TOTAL 100 27 hrs 30 min
    Table 4.2.5
    Grades 10 – 12
    Subject % of Instructional time in
    Table 4.2.1
    Time per week
    (hours & minutes)
    Languages 1 16.4 4.5
    Language 2 16.4 4.5
    Mathematics or Mathematical Literacy 16.4 4.5
    Life Orientation 7.3 2.0
    Technology 8 2 hrs 12 min
    Three elective subjects 14.5 x 3 = 43.5 12 (3 x 4 hours)
    TOTAL 100 27.5
  3. Formal school day for learners
    The formal school day for learners includes the instructional teaching time, breaks, assembly, register periods and all non-prescribed teaching. The time used for breaks, assembly, register periods and all non-prescribed teaching is determined by the school. In the table below 3 hrs 45 min is used as an example.

    Table 4.2.6
    Grades Instructional Teaching Time
    (see Table 4.2.1)
    Formal School Day for Learners
    Grades R – 2 23 hrs 23hrs + 3hrs 45min = 26hrs 45min ÷ 5 = 5hrs 20min
    Grade 3 25 hrs 25hrs + 3hrs 45min = 28hrs 45min ÷ 5 = 5hrs 45min
    Grades 4 – 12 27 hrs 30 min 27hrs 30min + 3hrs 45min = 31hrs 15min ÷ 5 = 6hrs 15min
  4. Formal school day for teachers
    The formal school day for teachers is 7 hours (PAM).This includes the breaks and periods in which the learners are not at school. This means that the teacher’s time for admin work during the formal school day, is 7 hours less the learners’ formal school day, plus the off periods allocated to the teacher on the school’s timetable.
    The PAM also determines that a teacher must be able to account for 1 800 actual working hours per year. This includes the formal school day and 80 hours per year spent on professional development programmes. The school year (365 days less weekends, public and school holidays) varies between 200 and 210 days. This means that in the case of a 200-day school year, a teacher should spend 1 800 hrs divided by 200 = 9 hrs on work on each of the 200 days, or in the case of a 210-day school year, 8.5 hours per day. In other words, 1.5 to 2 hrs per day over and above the formal school day of 7 hours.

4.3 PROGRESSION, PROMOTION AND ADMISSION TO POST SCHOOL AND HIGHER EDUCATION

4.3.1Legislative and Policy Framework

ACTS

  • The National Education Policy Act, 1996 (Act No. 27 of 1996) See 4.3.1(b) [NEPA]
  • The South African Schools Act, No. 84 of 1996 [SASA]

 

REGULATIONS

  •  Regulations Pertaining to the Conduct, Administration and Management of the National Senior Certificate Examination (Aug 2008) (Government Gazette No. 31337) and as amended by Regulation Notice No. 371 in Government Gazette No. 37651, dated 16 May 2014 [NR NSCand Regulation Notice No. 1495 in Government Gazette No. 40472, dated 2 December 2016 [NR 40472/2016]

 

POLICIES

  • National Policy pertaining to the Programme and Promotion Requirements of the National Curriculum Statement Grades R-12 (Government Gazette No. 34600 of 12 September 2011 as amended by Government Notices No.1496 and 1497 in Government Gazette, No. 40472 dated 2 December 2016) [NPPPR]
  • National Protocol for Assessment Grades R-12 (Government Gazette No. 34600 of 12 September 2011) and amended as Government Notice No. 1115 and 1116, Government Gazette No. 36042 of 28 December 2012 [NPA]

 

CURCILURS

  • National Assessment Circular No. 3 of 2015 [3/2015]
  • National Assessment Circular No. 1 of 2017 [NA 1/2017]
  • National Circular No. 8 of 2018 [S8/2018]

4.3.2Framework for the Development of School Policy on Progression, Promotion and Admission to Post School and Higher Education

  1. Progression / Promotion Gr R-3
    • Progression within the age cohort should be the norm, unless the learner displays a lack of competence to cope with the following grade’s work. Such a learner should be assessed to determine the level of support required.
    • Guidelines to determine promotion of learners in the Foundation Phase:
      SUBJECT REQUIRED ACHIEVEMENT (7 level scale)
      GRADE R GRADES 1-3
      Lang at Home Language Level Not specified 4
      Lang at 1st Additional Lang Level Not specified 3
      Mathematics Not specified 3
      Life Skills Not specified Not specified
    • A learner who does not meet the requirements for promotion can be progressed to prevent the learner being retained in the Foundation Phase for longer than four years (excluding Gr R, in other words a learner who has done Gr R, can be retained in the Phase for 5 years).
  2. Progression / Promotion Gr 4 to 6
    • Promotion from grade to grade within the age cohort should be the norm unless the learner displays a lack of competence to cope with the following grade’s work.
    • Guidelines to determine a learner’s promotion in the Intermediate Phase:
      SUBJECT REQUIREMENT
      (7 level scale)
      Official Language at Home Language Level* 4
      Official Language at First Additional Language Level* 3
      Mathematics 3
      Any two of the remaining subjects 3
      Remaining subject No requirement, except for evidence of assessment tasks done.
      Immigrant learners:  Only one language but a 3 in all the remaining subjects
      * One of the two languages must be the language of learning and teaching (LOLT)
    • A learner may be retained only once in this phase.
  3. Progression/ Promotion for Grades 7-9
    • Promotion requirements:
      • Home Language- 4 (50%)
      • First Additional Language-3 (40%)
      • Mathematics- 3 (40%)
      • In any 3 other subjects-3
      • In any 2 of the other subjects – 2
    • Progression:
    • A learner may only be retained once in the phase to prevent the learner being retained in this phase for longer than four years
    • Condonation/Mark adjustment: (National Assessment Circular No. 3 of 2015)
    • The number of subjects and the percentage range in which a learner can receive an adjustment will decrease with each successive year of CAPS implementation. In 2015, 2016 and 2017, the following adjustments will apply in Grades 7-9 in a maximum of three subjects.
      The table below indicates the maximum adjustments for each year starting with 2015.

      Year 2015 2016 2017 2018 and beyond
      Maximum % adjustment 7% in 3 subjects 6% in 3 subjects 5% in 3 subjects 2% in Mathematics or any other subject
    • From 2018, a condonation will be applied to individual learners whereby they are awarded a 2% condonation to pass in any one subject.
  4. Promotion in Gr 10-12 (See NR 1495/2016 – Criteria for the Implementation of Progression in Grades 10-12)
    • Requirements
      A learner must comply with the following requirements to be promoted from grade to grade or to be awarded the National Senior Certificate at completion of Gr 12:

      • 40% in three of the seven subjects, one of which must be an official language at Home Language Level;
      • 30% in three other subjects
      • A complete portfolio of evidence of the school based assessment in the seventh subject
      • If a learner has offered a Practical Music subject of one of the Music examination bodies, it counts as an eighth subject and cannot enable the learner to comply with the promotion requirements.
    • Condonation
      • A condonation of a maximum of one subject applies when a Gr 12 final examination candidate requires a maximum of 2% to obtain a pass at either 30% or 40% and as a result complies with the requirements for obtaining the National Senior Certificate (NSC).
      • Condonation does not apply in the case of Gr 10 and 11
    • Supplementary examinations
      A NSC candidate who has not met the minimum certification requirements but requires not more than two subjects to qualify, may register for a maximum of two subjects for the supplementary examinations in the following year.
      For details concerning provisos in this regard, see documents 4.3.1.
    • A learner may be retained only once in this phase.
    • Repetition norm
      • The norm for repetition, namely that a learner may not be retained in the Further Education and Training Phase for a period not exceeding four years will, subject to sub-regulation, only be applied in cases where it is considered as in the best interest of learners to be progressed to the next grade. Considering this, progression to either Grade 10 or Grade 11, is subject to the following criteria-
        • the learner must have failed either Grade 10 or Grade 11, and repeated either Grade 10 or Grade 11 by means of one of the following scenarios-
          • must have repeated Grade 10 and was unable in meeting the promotion requirements at the end of the second year in Grade 10; or
          • must have met Grade 10 promotion requirements, but was unsuccessful in meeting the Grade 11 promotion requirements after a period of two years; or
          • must have been unsuccessful in meeting Grade 10 promotion requirements at the end of the first year, was progressed to Grade 11 the following year but was unable in meeting the Grade 11 promotion requirements at the end of the first year in Grade 11; and
        • pass four of the seven subjects, offered for the National Senior Certificate, comprising-
          • the Language of Learning and Teaching (LoLT) and
          • three other approved subjects, including Life Orientation, selected from Groups A and/or B in Annexure B as contemplated in Regulation 4B(a) and (b);
        • attended school on a regular basis. Absenteeism in excess of 20 days, without a valid reason, will disqualify the learner from being progressed. If the learner has been absent for more than 20 days, without a valid reason, this constitutes irregular attendance; and
        • complied with the prescribed School-Based Assessment (SBA) requirements for all subjects offered, including the failed subjects for that academic year as contemplated in Regulations 7 and 8;
      • To establish whether a learner should be retained in the Further Education and Training Phase or progressed to the next grade, the following procedure must be followed-
        • the school must convene a special meeting of relevant subject staff to evaluate each learner holistically that has not met the promotion requirements more than once in Grade 10 or 11;
        • if there is consensus among all subject teachers during the promotion/progression meeting that the learner should be retained in the current grade, then a meeting must be held with the parent/guardian so that the advice is carefully and clearly explained by the school and understood by the parent/guardian before the learner’s school report is handed to them;
        • the decision reached at the meeting contemplated in sub-regulation (ii) must be reflected on the learner’s report card. If the learner is retained, this must be confirmed in writing by the parent; and
      • A parent/guardian has a right to appeal the final decision made by the school to progress or retain a learner and must follow the following process-.
        • to appeal a progression or retention decision, the parent/guardian must submit a written request, not later than three (3) days after the official opening of schools, to the school principal specifying the reasons why the progression or retention decision is being contested;
        • within fourteen (14) working days of receiving a request to appeal, the Head of Department or his/her designee shall make a final determination in this regard; and
        • the onus shall be on the parent as the appealing party to show why the progression or retention decision should be overruled.
      • Districts and schools must have clearly articulated intervention strategies that include an early identification of low achievers or at-risk learners so that the school, district and province can develop and implement additional learning opportunities.
      • The Provincial Education Department must monitor the implementation of the Progression Policy across all schools to ensure compliance with it.
      • Progression in Grades 10-12 does not guarantee the final certification of a learner in Grade 12 and such a learner must comply with the certification requirements as contemplated in paragraph 37(1)(a) of the policy document, National policy pertaining to the programme and promotion requirements of the National Curriculum Statement Grades R – 12 to enable him or her to obtain a National Senior Certificate. Progressed learners will, however, be allowed multiple examination option, which implies that the learner writes a limited number of subjects in the first sitting of the examination as set out in Regulation 41A of the Regulation document, Regulations pertaining to the Conduct, Administration and Management of the National Senior Certificate examination, published as Government Regulation Notice No. R872 in Government Regulation Gazette No. 31337 of 29 August 2008 and be allowed to write the remaining subjects in a subsequent examination.
    • Progressed Learners and MOE
      • Learners who have been progressed to Grade 12 should be allowed to follow the multiple examination option, which implies that the learner writes a limited number of subjects in the first sitting of the National Senior Certificate examination and will be allowed to write the remaining subjects in a subsequent examination in order to allow them to satisfy their outstanding requirements.
      • The performance of progressed learners must be monitored in the Grade 12 year, and based on a consultative process with the parent, the learners will-
        • be advised to write the examination in a limited number of subjects in the first sitting of the end-of-year examination;
        • be allowed to sit for a limited number of subjects in the examination based strictly on the performance of the learners in the said examination and preceding tests in the Grade 12 year;
        • be allowed to write the examination in all six subjects, provided they have demonstrated acceptable achievement levels in all six subjects, and
        • be allowed to write in the June examination the remaining limited number of subjects, subject to the following-
          • only a limited number of subjects will be examined and progressed candidates may only enrol for those subjects indicated on the list of selected subjects for examination; and
          • should a learner be unsuccessful in meeting the outstanding requirements in the June examination, he or she will be regarded as a part-time repeater candidate as contemplated in sub-regulation (3).
  5. Admission to Post School Education and Training
    TVET-colleges
    A learner who has completed Gr 9 and has complied with the requirements for promotion to Gr 10, qualifies for admission to courses offered by TVET colleges.
  6. Admission to Higher Education
    Categories of NSC subjects in terms of which the admission requirements are stated

    • Recognised 20-credit subjects
      All the subjects in the National Curriculum Statement for Gr 10 – 12 are recognised 20-credit subjects, except for Life Orientation which is a 10-credit subject.
    • Designated subjects
      The designated subject list has been revoked. See Circular S8 of 2018 [S8/2018]
    • Minimum requirements for admission
      • Minimum requirements for certificate studies at universities
        • A National Senior Certificate (NSC) as certified by UMALUSI
        • Minimum 30% in the language of learning and teaching of the higher education institution
    • Requirements for diploma studies at universities
      • An NSC as certified by UMALUSI
      • Minimum 30% in the language of learning and teaching of the higher education institution
      • 40-49% (Level 3) or higher in four recognised NSC 20-credit subjects
    • Requirements for degree studies at universities
      • A NSC as certified by UMALUSI
      • Minimum 30% in the language of learning and teaching of the higher education institution
      • 50-59% (Level 4) or higher in four subjects
    • Additional requirements
      • Additional subject requirements
        A university or faculty of a university may expect applicants to comply with additional requirements concerning subjects or subject combinations.
      • Admission Points Score (APS)
        Universities calculate the Admission Points Score (APS) by using the applicant’s achievement in six recognised 20-credit subjects in terms of the 7-level assessment scale. The highest possible APS is therefore 42.
      • National benchmark tests
        • These tests are used by universities for the following purposes:
        • To assess the literacy and mathematics proficiency of applicants for admission;
        • To assess the relationship between university entry level requirements and Grade 12 outcomes; and
        • To obtain additional information for the placement of students in appropriate programmes.

4.4 INCLUSIVE EDUCATION

4.4.1Legislative and Policy Framework

ACTS

  • The South African Schools Act, No. 84 of 1996 [SASA]
  • Education White Paper 6 Special Needs Education: Building an Inclusive Education and Training System (2001) Proclaimed as National Policy in 2001 (Government Gazette No. 22524, 27 July 2001) [WP 6]

 

POLICIES

  • Policy on the Screening, Identification, Assessment and Support as published in Government Gazette No. 38356 of 19 December 2014 [SIAS]
  • White Paper on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities 2015 [WP RPD]
  • Education White Paper 6 Special Needs Education: Building an Inclusive Education and Training System (2001) Proclaimed as National Policy in 2001 (Government Gazette No. 22524, 27 July 2001) [WP 6]

 

GUIDELINES

  • Guidelines for responding to learner diversity in the classroom through curriculum assessment and policy statements [NG DCA]
  • Guidelines for Full Service/Inclusive Schools (2010) [NG FSS]
  • Guidelines to ensure quality education and support in Special Schools and Special Schools as Resource Centres [NG QES]
  • Procedural Manual for the assessment of learners who experience barriers to assessment from Gr R to 12 (September 2016) [NG BAR]
  • Guidelines for Inclusive Teaching and Learning June 2010 [NG IE]

4.4.2Framework for the Development of School Policy on Inclusive Education

  1. Inclusive education can be explained best by comparing it to mainstreaming. In mainstreaming the emphasis is on helping learners with special needs to fit into the system for ‘normal’ learners. Inclusive education focuses on overcoming barriers in the system that prevents it from meeting the full range of learners’ needs. (White Paper 6, Page 17).
  2. The organising principle or the Screening, Identification and Support process is that every child should have the right to receive quality basic education and support within his or her local community (SIAS, Page 15). The policy advocates a shift from a system where learners are referred to another specialised setting other than the school nearest to their home where a request is made for assistance to be delivered at the current school.
  3. Every learner has a right to receive reasonable accommodation in an inclusive setting. Reasonable measures must be taken to ensure that a child with a disability can have access to an inclusive, quality and free primary education, and secondary education on an equal basis with others in the communities in which they live (SIAS, Page 10, 13 & 15).
  4. Learners with special educational needs do the same curriculum as all other learners but the curriculum is adapted in terms of methodology, pace, time allocation and assessment to accommodate these learners. The balance between the components of the curriculum can be changed in terms of emphasis and time allocation.
  5. If the needs of learners with special needs are of such a nature that the required support cannot be provided in the ordinary class environment, such learners must be given access to additional support (SIAS, Page 18).
  6. If the needs for support exceed the support which the school is able to provide, the learners must be referred to a school that is equipped to cater for learners who are experiencing that specific kind of impairment (school for specialised education).
  7. The SIAS Policy provides clear guidelines on enrolling learners in special schools and settings which also acknowledge the central role played by parents and teachers. The Policy includes a protocol as well as a set of official forms to be used by teachers, School-Based Support Teams and District-Based Support Teams in the process of screening, identifying and assessing barriers experienced by learners.
  8. The White Paper specifies the following support mechanisms and structures for learners who are experiencing special educational needs:
    • School-Based Support Teams (SBST)
    • All schools are required to establish School-Based Support Teams (SBSTs). These teams have to provide co-ordinated learner and educator support services within the school by identifying and addressing learner, educator and institutional needs (e.g. a learner who requires additional support). The SBSTs are supported by district support teams.
    • District-Based Support Teams (DBSTs) (initially one team in each of 30 selected districts across the country)
    • District-Based Support Teams (DBSTs) support the SBSTs in providing illustrative learning programmes, learner support materials and equipment, assessment instruments and professional support for educators. They will build the capacity of the institutions to recognise and address learning difficulties and provide additional support. Staff from district, regional and head office and from special schools, including therapists and social workers serves on the DBSTs.
    • Full-service schools (initially one school per each of the 30 selected districts)
    • A full-service school is a primary school which has been converted and equipped with the necessary physical, material and human resources to accommodate the diverse range of learning needs. These schools are meant to expand provision and access to disabled learners within neighbourhood schools.
    • Resource centres (initially one centre per each of the 30 selected districts)
    • Resource centres are special schools that are upgraded to resource centres with specially trained staff and with two main responsibilities:
      • To provide improved educational services to specified learner populations; and
      • To provide specialised professional support to full-service and other neighbourhood schools.
  9. Some provinces allow or even encourage schools to make use of aid classes. However, the point of departure when a learner is moved from a mainstream class to an aid class or any other form of additional support should always be to manage it as a temporary intervention with the intention to return the learner to the mainstream class as soon as sufficient progress has been made.
  10. Some schools even introduce a separate “stream” for learners with special needs, but again with the intention to return learners to the mainstream once they demonstrate sufficient progress.
  11. Schools in rural areas in particular can in this way address the plight of learners who would otherwise have to be sent to special schools with hostel facilities, often far away from home.

4.4.3Guidelines for the Development of School Policy on Inclusive Education

  1. The school’s policy should:
    • Spell out clearly the school’s position concerning the admission and accommodation of learners who are experiencing barriers to learning (learners with special educational needs);
    • Determine the composition and functioning of the School-Based Support Team (SBST);
    • Provide guidelines on ways in which the curriculum can be adapted to accommodate learners with special needs (or provide an adapted curriculum);
    • Specify ways in which assessment instruments should be adapted to assist learners with special needs; and
    • Specify the procedures to be followed to give learners with learning barriers/special needs access to additional support.
  2. In addition to the protocol outlined in the SIAS Policy, the following additional documents provide further guidance on specific matters to be addressed by the school’s policy:
    • Reference List C (IESP): Planning an individual and additional education and support plan (IESP)
    • Reference List C (PARENTS): Discussions with parents
    • Reference List C (GIFTED): Providing for the gifted learner in a system for inclusive education
  3. For guidance on concessions see Chapter 4.6.

4.5 CURRICULUM FOR LEARNERS WITH SPECIAL EDUCATIONAL NEEDS (LSEN)

4.5.1Legislative And Policy Framework

ACTS

  • The National Education Policy Act, 1996 (Act No. 27 of 1996) [NEPA] (See 4.5.1(b))
  • The South African Schools Act, No. 84 of 1996 [SASA], Section 12(4) & (5) and SASA 2B-12 to 17

 

POLICY

  • Education White Paper 6 Special Needs Education: Building an Inclusive Education and Training System (2001) Proclaimed as National Policy in 2001 (Government Gazette No. 22524, 27 July 2001) [WP 6]
  • Language in Education Policy 14 July 1997 [NP LANGUAGE]
  • Policy on the Screening, Identification, Assessment and Support as published in Government Gazette No. 38356 of 19 December 2014 [SIAS]
  • National Policy Pertaining to the conduct, administration and management of the National Senior Certificate Examination published as Government Gazette No 30048 of 6 July 2007 and amended as Government Notices 372 and 373 in Government Gazette, Vol. 587, No 37652 dated 16 May 2014 [NSC], Annexure C1 – Assessment for Learners who Experience Barriers to Learning and Assessment
  • All the documents listed in the other units of this chapter, Chapter 4.1 in particular

 

GUIDELINES

  • Guidelines for Responding to Learner Diversity through the Curriculum and Assessment Policy Statements [NG DCA]
  • Guidelines for Full Service/Inclusive Schools (2010) [NG FSS]
  • Guidelines to ensure quality education and support in Special Schools and Special Schools as Resource Centres [NG QES]

4.5.2Framework for the Development of School Policy on a Curriculum for Learners With Special Educational Needs (LSEN)

  • Grades R to 9
    • Policy determines that all learners will do the same curriculum, the National Curriculum Statement (NCS) up to Gr 9, and that this curriculum should be adapted to accommodate learners with special educational needs.
    • The adaptation may include a different methodology, adjusted time allocations (e.g. more time spent on language or on Technology, depending on the needs and abilities of the learners) and different ways of assessing the learners’ progress.
    • The development of work schedules is crucial in this regard. It allows teachers to do the required adaptation in terms of the needs of the learners and circumstances at the school (available facilities and equipment).
    • All the subjects as specified by the NCS must be done.
    • It is important to keep in mind that the subjects, although accommodating the needs of learners with special educational needs, must still be aimed at preparing the learners for common assessment conducted by the Department of Basic Education at Grade 3, 6 and 9 level.
  • Grades 10 to 12 – Endorsed National Senior Certificate
    • Policy makes provision for a 5 subject National Senior Certificate for learners with special educational needs, referred to as the Endorsed National Senior Certificate (See NPPPR) .
    • This policy determines that a learner with special educational needs may choose to do either the ordinary 7 subject NSC or the adapted 5 subject NSC.
    • Learners with special educational needs may either be in special schools or in ordinary schools where special care is taken of them.
    • According to the SIAS Policy (see SIAS, P 19) integrated supports services should be available to provide specialised support on high, medium and low intensity and frequency levels across the following broad domains:
      • Vision
      • Hearing
      • Motor
      • Communication
      • Learning and cognition (moderate, severe, and profound intellectual disability or learning disabilities
      • Neurological and neurodevelopmental impairments (including epilepsy, cerebral palsy, attention deficit disorder, specific learning disabilities, foetal alcohol syndrome, traumatic head injury, autism, etc.)
      • Health (including mental health) as part of the integrated school health programme
      • Behaviour and social skills
      • Skills and vocational education
      • Multiple and complex learning and developmental support
  • The Endorsed NSC requires the following:
    • Subjects to be offered:
      • One official language at least at 1st Additional Language Level
      • Mathematics or Mathematical Literacy
      • Life Orientation
      • Two other subjects listed under Group B in the National Policy Pertaining to the Programme and Promotion Requirements
    • Pass requirements
      • At least 30% in the five subjects as listed above

4.5.3Development of a Technical Occupational Curriculum as an Exit Qualification at NQF Level 1

It is important to distinguish between an adapted curriculum for LSEN and a separate curriculum for LSEN. Through curriculum differentiation, the curriculum can be adapted to cater for the needs of the learner with special needs as far as possible (See NPPPR and the guideline document: Guidelines for Responding to Learner Diversity).

The Department of Basic Education is in the process of developing a learning programme, within the framework of the NSC, for learners with severe intellectual disability and children with profound intellectual disability. These learning programmes are still in draft soon to be published for public comment. These draft learning programmes will be piloted in 2017.

At the same time, a Technical Occupational Curriculum was developed as an exit qualification at NQF Level 1. This proposed qualification would ensure articulation for learners who would like to proceed into FET, NCV or QCTO pathways after Grade 9. The Policy framework as well as the subject policy documents is still in draft and year one of the qualifications will in 2017 pilot in Schools of Skill. The draft policy framework is available on request at saoupod@saou.co.za

4.6 CONCESSIONS AND ACCOMMODATIONS

4.6.1Legislative and Policy Framework

ACTS

  • The National Education Policy Act, 1996 (Act No. 27 of 1996) [NEPA]
  • The South African Schools Act, No. 84 of 1996 [SASA]

 

REGULATIONS

  • Regulations Pertaining to the Conduct, Administration and Management of the National Senior Certificate Examination (Aug 2008) (Government Gazette No. 31337) and as amended by Regulation Notice No. 371 in Government Gazette No. 37651, dated 16 May 2014 [NR NSC]

 

POLICIES     

  • Policy on the Screening, Identification, Assessment and Support as published in Government Gazette No. 38356 of 19 December 2014 [SIAS]
  • National Policy Pertaining to the Conduct, Administration and Management of the National Senior Certificate Examination published as Government Gazette No 30048 of 6 July 2007 and amended as Government Notices 372 and 373 in Government Gazette, Vol. 587, No 37652 dated 16 May 2014; Annexure C1 – Assessment for Learners who Experience Barriers to Learning and Assessment [NSC]
  • National Policy Pertaining to the Programme and Promotion Requirements of the National Curriculum Statement Grades R-12 (Government Gazette No. 34600 of 12 September 2011 as amended by Government Notices No.1496 and 1497 in Government Gazette, No. 40472 dated 2 December 2016) [NPPPR]
  • Amended Conduct Policy Annexure on Accommodations, Government Gazette, No. 37652, 16 May 2014 [NP 37652/2014]
  • National Protocol for Assessment Grades R – 12, Government Notices No. 722 and No. 723, Government Gazette No. 34600 of 12 September 2011 and amended as: Government Notice No. 1115 and No. 1116, Government Gazette No. 36042 of 28 December 2012 [NPA]

 

GUIDELINES

  • Guidelines for Responding to Learner Diversity through the Curriculum and Assessment Policy Statements [NG DCA]

4.6.2Framework for the Development of School Policy on Concessions and Accommodations

  1. What are accommodations?
    Accommodations cover a range of differentiated strategies that can be implemented to minimise the impact of a barrier to learning on the assessment of a learner. These strategies may include giving a learner extra time during tests and examinations, enlarge print, providing a reader or a scribe, allow for rest breaks, etc. These mechanisms are described in Annexure C1 – Assessment for Learners who Experience Barriers to Learning and Assessment.
  2. What are concessions?
    Concessions are measures aimed at minimising the impact of a barrier to learning on the assessment of the learner and to place such learners on par with other learners and let them perform to full potential.
    There are two categories of concessions, those relating to the position of an immigrant learner and those relating to barriers that impact on a learner’s learning.
  3. Concessions for Grades R to 12
    • Concessions for immigrants
      • According to the NPPPR, an immigrant learner is a child or dependent of a diplomatic representative of a foreign government accredited in South Africa, or a person who first entered a South African school in Gr 7 or a higher grade, or started his/her schooling in South Africa and attended school in another country for two or more consecutive years after Gr 3 or its equivalent and has subsequently returned to South Africa.
      • The learner must be in possession of the relevant documents from the Department of Home Affairs, and proof must be issued by the school where the learner for the first time entered the South African school system.
      • An immigrant learner in Gr 1-9 is required to offer the two official languages, one on Home Language Level and one on First Additional Language Level.
      • An immigrant learner in the Intermediate and Senior Phase must pass one of the required two official languages on at least First Additional Language Level and obtain a rating of Moderate Achievement (Level 3) in that Language, and must further comply with all the other Intermediate and Senior Phase promotion requirements.
      • An immigrant learner in the Intermediate and Senior Phase may offer his or her home language in lieu of one official language, provided that it is an officially approved non-official language.
      • An immigrant learner in Gr 10-12 may offer only one official language on at least First Additional Language Level and obtain a rating of 30% in that language, provided that another subject from Group B of the subject offerings is offered in lieu of the other official language,
      • An immigrant may also offer his/her home language in lieu of that one official language instead of a subject from Group B, subject to his/her home language being on the list of languages on home language level in Table B4 of the subject offerings as outlined in the NPPPR. If it is not, the candidate may offer his/her home language on the A-level of the GCE of the UK, or as a subject examined in an examination recognised by the Department of Basic Education.
    • Concessions for learners with other barriers to learning (neurological, sensory, physical etc)
      • In the Intermediate and Senior Phase, a Deaf learner must offer the two required official languages, one at Home Language Level, the other at First Additional Language Level, but they need only achieve a 3 rating in one of the two on First Additional Language Level and a 2 in the other also on FAL level.
      • The same applies for learners with communication and language impairments, such as aphasia and dyslexia.
      • A Deaf learner in Grades 10-12 who do not offer South African Sign Language at Home Language Level may offer one official language at First Additional Language Level which is the language of learning and teaching, provided that another subject from Group B is offered in lieu of the one official language that is not offered.
      • Learners in Grades 10-12 with communication and language impairments such as aphasia or dyslectic candidates may offer only one official language at First Additional Language Level if another subject from Group B in the NPPPR is offered in lieu of the other language.
      • Candidates in Gr 10-12 suffering from a mathematical disorder such as dyscalculia, may be exempted from offering Mathematical Literacy or Mathematics, if another subject from Group B (see NPPPR) is offered in lieu of this subject.
  4. Processing of concessions and accommodations
    • All applications must be directed to the head of the provincial education department immediately after the disorder has been diagnosed.
    • All applications must be accompanied by an evaluation conducted by LSEN structures and by external, professionally registered experts in the relevant field.

4.6.3Guidelines for the Development of School Policy on Concessions

  • Schools could include the guidelines and protocol as outlined in the SIAS policy as well as Annexure C1 – Assessment for Learners who Experience Barriers to Learning, in their own school policy.
  • Primary and high schools should consult the websites of their provincial department and determine whether there are provincial guidelines additional to the SIAS protocol on concessions and accommodations.

4.7 HOMEWORK

4.7.1Legislative and Policy Framework

Homework is not addressed explicitly by any national act or policy. This makes it even more important that this matter be properly addressed by the school’s policy.

WesternCape

GUIDELINES

  • WCED Circular 0045/2005 does address this matter and states, “It is recommended that each school develop a homework policy …” [Reference B9 0045/2005]

4.7.2Framework for the Development of School Policy on Homework

  1. What is homework?
    Homework involves tasks given by teachers to learners to be done out of class as an extension of classroom work.
  2. The legitimacy of homework
    Giving learners homework is educationally accountable in that it provides an opportunity for learners to increasingly work on their own in accordance with their gradually developing learning abilities. No cases of departments discouraging homework could be found when this document was prepared.
  3. The purpose of homework
    The purpose of homework includes the following:

    • To develop the learners’ ability to work independently.
    • To complement and reinforce learning that has taken place in the classroom (the focus therefore shifts to application of what has been learnt).
    • To create an opportunity for the teacher to assess the learners’ progress and to identify aspects that need further attention.
    • To strengthen the link between home and school by creating an opportunity for parents to become involved in their children’s education.
    • To inculcate self-discipline in the use of leisure time.
    • To inculcate good study habits.
    • To foster good life-long learning and study habits.
  4. Considerations when formulating school policy on homework
    • Homework should encourage or even compel the learner to think about and apply what he/she has learned in the classroom (completion of worksheets should be avoided).
    • Formulating the homework tasks should be approached as an assessment activity.
    • The tasks should be at the appropriate level and should challenge the learners in a positive way rather than discourage them.
    • The circumstances of the learners must be taken into account when planning homework instructions (extra-curricular activities, home responsibilities and circumstances at home).
    • The involvement of parents should be managed as far as possible, e.g. by requesting the parent’s signature, comments, views, etc.
    • School policy should provide guidelines on the amount of homework to be given. In the Foundation Phase the time in total should not exceed 30 minutes and in Gr 12 not 180 minutes, with the other grades on a sliding scale between the two.

4.8 EXCURSIONS

4.8.1Legislative and Policy Framework

ACTS

  • The National Education Policy Act, 1996 (Act No. 27 of 1996) (Section 3(4)(l)) [NEPA]
  • The South African Schools Act, No. 84 of 1996 [SASA]

 

REGULATIONS

  • Regulations for Safety Measures at Public Schools (Government Gazette 22754, 12 October 2001 and 29376, 10 November 2006) [NR SMP]

Gauteng

REGULATIONS

  • Gauteng Province: Regulations on Domestic and International Tours for learners at public schools (Provincial Gazette Extraordinary Vol 18, No. 129, 11 May 2012) [Reference B3 129/2012]

4.8.2Framework for the Development of School Policy on Excursions

    1. As excursions are regarded as a curriculum activity, national policy on matters specified in Section 3(4) (l) of the NEPA applies to excursions as well (learning programmes, curriculum, etc.).
    2. The regulations on school safety (see 4.8.1 above) are very specific with regard to school activities (from the wording it is clear that school activity actually means an excursion):


8A School activities

      1. A public school must ensure that –
        • it completes the application form contemplated in Schedule 1 to the Regulations in duplicate if the school activity involves transporting of learners;
        • the application is approved by an official representing the provincial education department before such school activity is undertaken; and
        • a copy of the approved application form is handed to the school and the original is kept by the official representing the provincial education department.
      2. A public school must take measures to ensure the safety of learners during any school activity, including
        • insuring against accidents, injuries, general medical expenses, hospitalisation and theft that may occur, depending on the availability of funds;
        • ensuring, where reasonably practicable, that learners are under the supervision of an accompanying educator at all times;
        • requesting parents or other adults to assist in the supervision of learners;
        • ensuring that the educator-learner ratio is at least –
          • One educator, parent or other adult for every 20 learners in primary schools; or
          • One educator, parent or other adult for every 30 learners in secondary schools; and
        • ensuring that, in respect of the adult-learner ratio, gender is taken into account.
      3. An insurer of a school is contemplated in regulation 8A(2)(a) may not rely on section 60 of the South African Schools Act 84 of 1996 to avoid liability in terms of the Insurance Policy.
      4. If an insurer is liable in the event of injury suffered by a learner, the school must assist the parent in claiming from the insurer on behalf of the learner.
      5. If the Road Accident Fund is liable in the event of injury suffered by a learner, the school must assist the parent in claiming from the Fund on behalf of the learner.
      6. A public school must assist a parent in any claim made in terms of section 60 of the South African Schools Act 84 of 1996.
      7. A public school must take measures to ensure that –
        • if a learner is on medication and will require medication during the course of school activities, the parent has seen to it that the learner has sufficient quantities of the medication for the duration of the school activities;
        • if it is necessary for a learner to carry a doctor’s prescription for medication, the parent has provided the learner and the supervising education with certified copies of such prescription;
        • a parent is advised to report to the school, in writing, the medical condition of a learner;
        • before a school activity, the principal provides a supervising educator with a report on the medical condition of a leaner; and
        • a parent is informed about any travelling to or through a high-risk disease area during the course of the school activity.
      8. A public school must take measures to ensure that, if a learner is injured or falls ill during the course of a school activity and requires medical treatment, the supervising educator –
      9. takes measures to contact the parent of the learner concerned in order to obtain consent for such medical treatment; and
      10. determines whether or not to consent to such medical treatment if he or she is unable to contact the parent of the learner.

[Reg 8A inserted by GN R1128 of 10 November 2006.]

8B Organisation of a school activity

      1. A public school must, in writing, supply the following information to the parent of the learner who will undertake the school activity:
        • The purpose of the school activity;
        • The nature of the activities to be undertaken during the school activity;
        • The full itinerary of the school activity, with contact details of the hosts and of the supervising educators;
        • The nature of transport, accommodation and catering arrangements;
        • Where applicable, the fact that the learner will need to acquire travelling documents and an inoculation certificate, and where they can be obtained;
        • The fact that the travelling documents must be obtained at least seven days prior to the date of departure; and
        • Any other relevant details.
      2. Immediately after returning from a school activity, the supervising educator must submit a report to the principal if any of the following has occurred.
        • Accident;
        • Injury to a learner, educator or driver or to any other person; or
        • Any act of misconduct on the part of a learner, educator or driver or of another person.
      3. The report must include the following information:
        • The nature of the incident;
        • The nature of the injury, if applicable;
        • The time, date and place of the incident;
        • Procedures that were followed in dealing with the incident; and
        • The name of the supervising educator.
      4. The principal must submit the report to the official who approved the school activity and to the chairperson of the school governing body.

[Reg 8B inserted by GN R1128 of 10 November 2006.]

8C Consent

      1. A public school must obtain written consent from the parent of the learner who will be undertaking the school activity.
      2. A public school may not request a parent to sign an indemnity form that indemnifies the school against any legal action that may arise as a result of the school activity.

[Reg 8C inserted by GN R1128 of 10 November 2006.]

8D Transport

      1. A public school must ensure that –
        • If it owns vehicles for transporting learners, such vehicles have insurance and roadworthy certificates;
        • The drivers of such vehicles are in possession of valid driving licenses and professional driving permits;
        • The transport company or the owner of the vehicles provides the school with the following:
          • Insurance and roadworthy certificates for each vehicle;
          • passenger liability insurance; and
          • valid driving license and professional driving permit of the driver;
          • the transport company or the owner of the vehicle provides a substitute driver and a transport support system en route; and
          • the vehicle transporting learners has a fire extinguisher.
      2. The principal, supervising educator or member of the school governing body must intervene if there is any doubt about the roadworthiness of the vehicle or the competence of the driver of the vehicle.
      3. The principal, supervising educator or member of the school governing body must liaise with the driver or the owner of the vehicle in connection with reporting any accident to the police, and must report the accident himself or herself, within 4 hours, if the driver or the owner of the vehicle fails to do so.

[Reg 8D inserted by GN R1128 of 10 November 2006.]

8E Physical activities

      1. No learner may be allowed to participate in physical activities, including sports, games or gymnastics, if –
        • The principal has reason to believe that such activity will be detrimental to the learner’s health; or
        • The parent has provided a medical certificate that prevents the learner from participating in such activity.
      2. The principal must ensure that learners are informed about the dangers of, and safety measures regarding, water.
      3. The safety measures regarding water contemplated in sub-regulation (2) apply to any swimming or water sports activities at
        • A swimming pool;
        • A river;
        • A dam; or
        • The ocean
      4. The principal must ensure that learners are supervised during all swimming activities, during visits to the sea, rivers and dams, and when they are taking part in water sports.
      5. If a public school has a swimming pool, the principal must ensure that notices regarding safety measures are displayed around the swimming pool.

[Reg 8E inserted by GN R1128 of 10 November 2006.]

4.8.3Guidelines for the Development of School Policy on Excursions

  1. Purpose of educational excursions
    Educational excursions are aimed at improving the implementation of the prescribed curriculum and therefore the quality of the teaching and learning process in the classroom.
  2. What is an educational excursion?
    An educational excursion is a structured learning experience provided by the school and comprises a visit to a place or event which is offering an enriching learning experience to the learner in terms of the requirements of the curriculum.
  3. Value of an excursion
    Excursions are educationally justifiable only when preceded by thorough preparation before the excursion takes place, when every opportunity is fully utilised during the excursion and when thorough follow-up work is done on return from the excursion.
  4. Types of excursions
    • Day visits
      A day visit takes place when learners visit one or more educational visiting points and return to the school the same day.
    • Tours
      An educational tour takes place when the learners spent one or more nights away from school.Sport tours and visits to other schools for sport activities are not educational excursions but the rules for arranging such tours and visits are the same.
  5. Planning educational excursions
    • Annual planning
      • Excursions should be planned a year in advance and should be indicated on the school’s year programme and the learning programmes used by the teachers.
      • Proper synchronising of all planned excursions is essential. Principals could consider appointing a committee for the planning of excursions.
      • School policy should specify the dates for the conclusion of excursions, e.g.
        Grade 12 first day of the third term
        Grades 3 to 11 last week of October
        Grades R to 2 the last day schools close for the December holidays
    • Number of excursions
      There is no limit to the number of excursions that a school may undertake per year. However, the planning of all the excursions for a year should be done in such a way that learners do not visit the same places more than once.
    • Notice to district or regional office
      The relevant district or regional office must be kept informed on all intended excursions.
    • Planning an excursion
      • The decision to arrange an excursion
        The decision to arrange an excursion must be taken in terms of the needs of the learners.
      • Overall responsibility
        • The principal must appoint a teacher to take overall responsibility for an excursion.
        • The responsibility cannot be delegated to a parent or outside body/organisation. The department remains responsible and specific procedures must therefore be followed by the school.
      • Who should participate?
        Excursions should be regarded as inclusive and all learners within the specific group must be given the opportunity to participate.
      • Risk assessment
        A risk assessment must be conducted and a risk management plan must be developed as part of the preparatory work.
      • Transport approval
        See Regulation 8D under 4.8.2 above.
      • Multi-disciplinary approach
        Each excursion should be planned and organised in a multi-disciplinary manner. Teachers of the different learning areas or subjects should be requested to suggest assignments from their respective perspectives. The teacher responsible for the excursion should then use the proposals to compile a working document for use by the learners during the excursion. In this way the maximum educational benefit will be gained from the excursion.
      • Preparing the learners
        • Learners should be well prepared for their excursion and teachers should set clear objectives as to what they hope to achieve by the excursion.
        • The first step is to brief the learners. Learners can also be given materials to read or study.
      • Planning activities for the excursion
        • The teacher(s) must be well prepared to supply information en route on the particular area the group is passing through, for example, its geography and farming activities.
        • Planning the excursion must be aimed at actively involving the learners in everything that is done during the excursion. This may include the taking of notes, specific assignments, photographs, drawings, etc.
        • Workbooks can be useful in this regard.
      • Planning follow-up work
        It is essential that follow-up tasks for the learners to do after the excursion, be prepared in advance. Such tasks may take the form of an assignment, an exhibition, a report, an oral presentation, etc.
      • Arranging for learners’ and teachers’ absence from school
        Groups of pupils undertaking an approved educational excursion are to be marked present for the day or days that they are not at school. The teachers who accompany the group on an educational excursion are officially on duty and they therefore do not forfeit leave for the days that they are absent.
      • Itinerary
        An accurate and detailed itinerary must be prepared and made available to the school management, the learners involved and their parents.
      • Meals and accommodation
        The learners must be informed beforehand in this regard and must be given the opportunity to mention dietary requirements.
      • Insurance
        • See Regulation 8A under 4.8.2 above.
        • The teachers accompanying the learners should be made aware that under no circumstances may they make a statement to an outside institution or sign an admission of guilt in the case of an accident or injury involving a learner. Such cases have to be reported to the department.
      • Precautions against malaria
        Learners should not be given prophylactics. However, if the excursion includes malaria infested areas, the parents must be requested to consult their doctors on the use of such substances.
      • Information to parents
        See Regulation 8A under 4.8.2 above.
      • Consent from parents/guardians
        See Regulation 8C under 4.8.2 above.
    • During the excursion
      • Overall responsibility
        The teacher made responsible for the excursion by the principal, is overall responsible for the group with regard to guidance, discipline, paying accounts and keeping to the itinerary.
      • Discipline
        • Strict discipline must be maintained by the teachers who will be held responsible for the behaviour of the learners at all times. Learners are never to be left on their own.
        • Supervision should be such that a charge of negligence cannot be brought against a teacher.
      • Safety of the learners
        • The teachers accompanying the learners are responsible for their safety.
        • The teacher with overall responsibility has to intervene timeously in situations where activities are offered which may jeopardise the safety of the learners.
        • The teacher with overall responsibility is expected to act if for some or other reason he/she doubts the roadworthiness of the transport vehicle or the competence of the driver. In such an instance the teacher must immediately contact the owner or manager of the company providing the service.
        • The instructions as provided by the regulations must be adhered to (see Regulations 8A, D and E) under 4.8.2 above.
      • Punctuality
        Punctuality and strict adherence to the itinerary is the key to a successful excursion.
    • After the excursion
      • Reports
        The teacher responsible for the excursion must submit a report to the principal. If there has been an accident, injury or misconduct, the instructions given by the regulations must be followed (see Regulation 8B under 4.8.2 above).
      • Learners’ assignments
        The learners’ assignments should be strictly controlled and marked. Wherever possible the marks should form part of the mark for a formal assessment task which relates to the excursion.

Also see Chapter 1.3 Developing of Policies

4.9 LIBRARY AND INFORMATION SERVICES (MEDIA CENTRES)

4.9.1Legislative and Policy Framework

ACTS

  • The South African Schools Act, No. 84 of 1996 (Section 5A)  [SASA] 

 

REGULATIONS

  • Regulations Relating to the Minimum Uniform Norms and Standards for School Infrastructure, Government Gazette No. 37081, of 29 November 2013 [NR SINF]

 

Mpumalanga

POLICY

  • Mpumalanga Department of Education: Mpumalanga School Library Policy, 2010 [Reference B6 LIB2010]

WesternCape

GUIDELINES

  • WCED Knowledge Management Minute: 0005/2016 Microsoft Schools Agreement July 2015 to June 2020 [Reference B9 0005/2016]

4.9.2Framework for the Development of School Policy on Library and Information Services

The SASA determines in Section 5A that the Minister may by regulation prescribe minimum uniform norms and standards for school infrastructure and the provision of learning and teaching support materials, and that such norms and standards must provide for inter alia a library.

The Minister of Basic Education in May 2010 announced that a document titled National Guidelines for School Libraries and Information Services would be released in June 2010. The document has not yet been released, however, the Regulations Relating to the Minimum Uniform Norms and Standards for School Infrastructure was published in 2013. This document provides little guidance in terms of norms for school libraries.

4.9.3Guidelines for the Development on School Policy on Library and Information Services

In the absence of departmental policy on libraries and information systems, a school could use the following framework to develop its own policy:

  • The library as media and information centre
  • Aims of the library as media and information centre
  • Facilities and security
  • Committee for media and information
  • Administration and management
  • Stock building
    • Equipment (hardware)
    • Books, periodicals and software
  • Organisation of media stock
  • Teachers’ reference collections
  • Stock taking
  • Use of library by teachers and learners

4.10 FREEDOM OF CONSCIENCE AND RELIGION

4.10.1Legislative and Policy Framework

ACTS

  • The National Education Policy Act, 1996 (Act No. 27 of 1996) (Section 3(4)(l) [NEPA
  • The South African Schools Act, No. 84 of 1996 (Section 7) [SASA] 

 

POLICY

  • National Policy on Religion and Education (Government Gazette 25459, 12 September 2003) NP 25459/2003]
  • National Policy for Determining School Calendars for Public School in South Africa (Government Gazette 38330, 30 January 2015) [NP CAL]

4.10.2Framework for the Development of School Policy on Freedom of Conscience and Religion

  1. Section 7 of SASA determines as follows: Subject to the Constitution and any applicable provincial law, religious observances may be conducted at a public school under rules issued by the governing body if such observances are conducted on an equitable basis and attendance at them by learners and members of staff is free and voluntary.
  2. The National Policy on Religion and Education issued in terms of NEPA Section 3(4)(l), covers the different aspects of Religion Education, Religious Instruction, Religious Studies and Religious Observances. The status of these concepts in terms of the policy is as follows:
    Concept Definition Status
    Religion Education A curriculum with clear educational aims and objectives for teaching about religion and religious diversity in South Africa and the world. Part of Life Skills/ Life Orientation in the National Curriculum
    State­ment (NCS) and therefore compulsory for all learners
    Religious Instruction Instruction in a particular faith or belief, with a view to inculcate adherence to that faith or belief. Schools are not allowed to offer Religious Instruction as part of the formal school programme, but are encouraged to allow religious groups to use the school facilities to provide Religious Instruction outside the formal school curriculum. Such opportunities must be afforded in an equitable manner to all religious bodies represented in the school.
    Religious Studies A specialised subject which was intended as an optional and examinable subject for Gr 10 – 12. Not yet included as a subject in any of the grades.
    Religious Observances The policy specifies four types:
    1. Voluntary public occasion for a religi­ous services on a day of worship or rest. Encouraged by policy, but not as part of the official function of the school.
    2. Voluntary occasions when teachers and learners gather for a religious observance, e.g. during assembly. If part of the school day, it must accommodate and reflect the multi-religious nature of South Africa, e.g. –

    • Separation of learners according to religion if the observance takes place outside the context of assembly;
    • Rotation of opportunities for observance in proportion to the representation of different religions in the school;
    • Selected readings from various texts emanating from different religions;
    • A universal prayer;
    • A period of silence.

    Religious uniformity may not be imposed on the teachers and learners. If observance forms part of assembly, learners may be excused on grounds of conscience and equitable arrangements must be made for them.

    3. Voluntary gathering of learners and/or teachers during a school break.
    4. Ongoing and entailing other dimensions such as dress, prayer times and diets. Must be respected and accommodated in a manner agreed upon by the school and relevant faith authorities.
  3. The National Policy for designing school calendars for ordinary public schools in South Africa (4.10.1 above) in Par. 3.1.7 determines as follows:
    • The School Governing Body of a school may exercise the right to close for religious commemorations where the majority of learners are members of the faith in question.
    • The number of days may not exceed two days and must be taken in lieu of the two days allocated for Sport and Culture (See National Policy for Determining School Calendars for Public School in South Africa)
    • The SGB must make application to the Head of Department to exercise this option and must give details concerning the size (numbers and percentage) of the religious majority and the days applied for.
    • Members of world religions that form a minority of learners in a school may be given permission to take recognised religious days off school. Learners should not be marked absent for the days in question. Examinations or tests should not be administered on days that they are absent.
    • Teachers are obliged to request for leave except where the schools are closed on the basis of an application from the SGB as explained above.
  4. The SAOU circulated a National Newletter 5/2017 and National Newsletter 8/2017 on Religious Observances in Schools

4.11 SUBJECT POLICY

4.11.1Legislative and Policy Framework

ACTS

  • The National Education Policy Act, 1996 (Act No. 27 of 1996) (Section 3(4)(l)) [NEPA
  • The South African Schools Act, No. 84 of 1996 (Section 6A) [SASA] 

 

POLICY

See list of documents under  Chapter 4.1.1

4.11.2Framework for the Development of School Policy on Subject Policy

The SASA determines in Section 5A that the Minister must determine a national curriculum and procedures for the assessment of learner achievement in public and independent schools. The policy on curriculum matters contained in the documents listed under Chapter 4.1.1 was determined in terms of this Section of SASA and must be used for the development of subjects and subject policies.

4.11.3Guidelines for the Development of School Policy on Subject Policy

  1. Important aspects to be kept in mind when developing policy on subject and phase policy are the following:
    • The policy must be developed with the departmental policy as point of departure and framework.
    • The policy must form part of school policy and be in line with school policy on other relating aspects, e.g. subject policy on assessment must be in line with the school policy on assessment, the timetable and year programme.
    • All subject/phase policies must be approved by the principal and then be regarded as school policy.
    • The principal or a delegate must be informed on the contents of all the subject phase policies and must be able to engage departmental officials on the legitimacy/validity thereof when the relevant teachers are challenged by them.
  2. A framework for the development of subject/phase policy which could be used as school policy on this matter is at  [Reference List C FRAMEWORK SUBJECT]